Home > Glossary > C


A | B | C | D | E | F-G | H | I-L | M | N-O | P | R | S | T-U | V

Cannula (in CPB)
A flexible tube which can be inserted into a cavity, usually by means of a trocar filling its lumen; after insertion of the cannula, the trocar is withdrawn and the cannula remains as a channel for the transport of fluid.

Cardiac Catheterization
Passage of a catheter into the heart through a blood vessel leading to the heart for the purpose of measuring intra-cardiac pressure abnormalities, obtaining cardiac blood samples, and/or imaging cardiac structures by injection of radio-opaque dye.

Cardiac Index
A measure of cardiac function that accounts for body size. It is calculated by dividing the cardiac output by the body surface area. An average adult's cardiac index ranges from 2.8-3.6 liters per minute.

Cardiac Mortality
Death due to cardiac cause.

Cardiac Output (CO)
CO is the primary indicator of cardiac function. It is the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle per minute. CO is calculated by multiplying stroke volume by heart rate. An average adult's CO is 5.6 liters per minute.

Cardiogenic Shock
Failure to maintain blood supply to the tissues because of inadequate cardiac output, such as may be caused in myocardial infarction.

A general diagnostic term designating primary myocardial disease.

1. Paralysis of the heart. 2. An elective temporary stopping of cardiac activity by injection of chemicals, selective hypothermia, or electrical stimuli.

Relating to the heart and lungs.

Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB)
The procedure that enables the blood to bypass the heart and lungs so that the surgical field is relatively dry and motionless. CPB involves the temporary substitution of a pump oxygenator for the heart and lungs to accomplish this.

1. Surgical opening in the heart. 2. Component of extracorporeal circuit serving as a reservoir for blood.

A clot of blood within one of the heart's chambers.

Cardiovascular (CV)
Relating to the heart and the blood vessels or the circulation.

Carotid Arteries
The pair of blood vessels that arise from the aorta into the cranial cavity and provide the majority of bloodflow to the brain.

A hollow, flexible tube that is used to withdraw or instill fluids. The tubes used to deliver cardioplegia solutions are usually considered catheters.

CCU (Coronary Care Unit)

Central Venous Pressure
The pressure in the right atrium, so called because all systemic veins drain into the right atrium.

Cerebral Embolization
Travel of gas or particulate matter through an artery to the brain.

Cerebral Hemorrhage
The result of rupture of sclerosed or diseased blood vessel or aneurysm in the brain. Often associated with high blood pressure.

Cerebral Infarction
Macroscopic area of cerebral necrosis caused by sudden severe reduction in blood flow to the brain. Cerebral infarction is a stroke caused by blood vessel occlusion (as opposed to blood vessel rupture).

Cerebral Ischemia
Insufficient blood flow to the brain due to obstruction of circulation. Prolonged or severe ischemia will cause permanent brain injury (stroke).

Cerebral Perfusion
Blood flow to the brain. Cerebral perfusion is directly related to mean arterial pressure and inversely related to cerebral vascular resistance.

Cerebrovascular Disease
Disease (usually atherosclerosis) of the cervical or intracranial blood vessels.

CHD (Congenital Heart Disease)

Chordae Tendineae
Strands of tendon that anchor the cusps of the mitral and tricuspid valves to the papillary muscles of the ventricles, preventing prolapse of the valves into the atria during ventricular contraction.

Movement in regular or circuitous course, as the movement of the blood through the heart and blood vessels. Includes collateral (compensatory), coronary, pulmonary (lesser), and systemic (greater or peripheral).

1. To convert a fluid or a substance in solution into a solid or gel. 2. To clot; to curdle; to change from a liquid to a solid or gel.

Concomitant but unrelated pathologic or disease process usually used to indicate coexistence of two or more disease processes.

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Failure of the heart to maintain adequate circulation of blood.

Encircling in the manner of a crown; especially to the arteries of the heart, and by extension, to pathologic involvement of them.

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
Vein or artery grafted surgically to permit blood to travel from the aorta to a branch of the coronary artery at a point past an obstruction.

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Although a number of disease processes other than atherosclerosis can involve coronary arteries, in this guideline the term CAD refers to the atherosclerotic narrowing of the major epicardial coronary arteries.

Coronary Sinus
The opening into the right atrium to which the veins of the left coronary circulation drain.

Coronary Stenosis
Narrowing or constriction of any arteries, orifices or chambers leading into or from the heart.

Coronary Thrombus
Blood clot that obstructs a blood vessel of the heart.

CPK (Creatine Phosphokinase)
An enzyme important in muscle contraction that is elevated in plasma following myocardial infarctions.

CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation)

The mixing of a donor's blood with a potential recipient's blood to test for compatibility.

Cx (Circumflex Artery [circ])

Back to Top


Cardiothoracic Associates
Queens Physicians Office Building 2 - 1329 Lusitana Street - Suite 109
Honolulu, HI 96813
Tel: 808-531-3311 Fax: 808-550-0279

The content on this website is intended to provide you with a better understanding of coronary artery disease, beating heart bypass surgery and endoscopic vessel harvesting. The procedures described in this website and related links may not be appropriate for all patients. The information on this website and maintain an open dialogue with you and your an informed discussion with a physician, and is not an endorsement or recommendation of any particular physician.

©2004 Cardiothoracic Associates  |   All Rights Reserved  |   hawaii@sachsconsulting.com | http://www.heartsurgery-usa.com